Fields of Sociology - Classification of Sociology into Specialized Fields

Sociology is classified into several specialized fields, some of which are:

  1. Applied sociology
  2. Humanistic sociology
  3. Collective behavior
  4. Sociology of religion
  5. Comparative sociology
  6. Urban sociology
  7. Rural sociology
  8. Social psychology
  9. Social control
  10. Demography
  11. Deviant behavior
  12. Cultural sociology
  13. Sociology of literature
  14. Military sociology
  15. Sociology of language

Sociology is classified into several specialized fields, some of which are: Applied sociology, Humanistic sociology, Collective behavior...
Fields of Sociology

Applied Sociology

'Applied sociology' and 'sociological practice' (also referred to as political sociology) have come to refer to interventions in an applied context using sociological expertise. Applied sociologists operate in a wide variety of contexts, including government, colleges, and private practice, applying sociological approaches to help communities address daily issues, such as enhancing community policing and crime prevention, assessing and improving drug courts, evaluating the needs of inner-city neighborhoods or developing a school system's potential.


Humanistic Sociology

It is an approach that considers its research subjects and its students, i.e. individuals, as composites of values and values systems. The concept is linked to other sociological realms, such as antipositivism, in some contexts. Humanistic sociology tries to shed light on topics such as, "What is the relationship between a man of principle and a man of opportunism?"

This is the humanistic sociology of conversation. It is a dialogue about concepts. As a science, rather than plugging individuals into systems that do not recognize or satisfy human needs, we need to develop and enforce support systems for people.


Collective Behavior

Individual behavior, fads, trends, panics, crazes, communities, publics, and supporters are all instances of collective behavior, as are more coordinated phenomena like change and progressive social movements. The study of collective behavior differs from the study of human behavior, in that it focuses on groups, but examinations into the actions and motives of the individuals inside these groups are also conducted. In that it consists of individuals acting together, collective behavior is similar to organized group behavior; however, it is more spontaneous than group behavior with well-defined norms and traditions that explain their goals, membership, leadership, and method of operation, and thus more volatile and unpredictable.


Sociology of Religion

The study of religion's ideals, behaviors, and hierarchical structures using sociology's tools and methods is known as sociology of religion. This objective research might include both quantitative and qualitative methodologies (population, surveys and census analyses). Religious sociology is distinct from religious theory in that it does not set out to test the authenticity of religious views. What Peter L. Berger described as "methodological atheism" inherent can entail the method of comparing different competing dogmas.


Comparative Sociology

Comparative sociology analyses social processes across nations or across societies of various sorts, such as capitalism and socialism. Comparative sociology has two primary approaches: others pursue balance through different countries and societies, while some seek difference. Structural Marxists, for instance, have attempted to use comparative methods to discover the general processes in different societies that apparently underlie different social orderings. The danger of this strategy is that in the search for supposed universal structures, the various social contexts are ignored.

Urban Sociology

The goal of urban sociology is to discover and explain the causal relationships that exist between the constituent parts of a city and the variables that cause them. This method allows for a better understanding of the dynamic and profound character of all urban realities, particularly the territorial stability of social life, and the creation of a structure and community that symbolizes land, and the history and evolution of human settlements. Ancient towns, cities in the Middle Ages, new cities, cities of technical revolutions, and cities of the world as a series of communities were all used to reproduce the institutional elements of the earliest human colonies in historically different ways. The characteristics of the 'financial city' tend to be the following: an aversion to the geographical distribution of the development chain, dominance over increasingly larger territory, a world-scale economy, and the production of icons and structures that legitimize the planetary control of the cities that cannot be offset by the political and legal orders of states.


Rural Sociology

Rural sociology is a branch of sociology that studies social structures and conflicts in rural regions, but it also covers topics such as food and agriculture, as well as access to natural resources. It began in the United States in the 1910s with strong ties to the national Department of Agriculture and agricultural university institutions with land grants, and it is now an important academic field in most of the world.

The sociology of food and agriculture is one emphasis of rural sociology, and much of the discipline is devoted to the economics of agricultural production. Other areas of research include rural migration and other population trends, environmental sociology, amenity-led development, public-land policies, so-called "boomtown" development, social disruption, natural resource sociology (including forestry, logging, fisheries, and other regions), rural communities and identities, and rural health and education policies.


Social Psychology

Social psychology is the scientific study of how real or perceived interactions with others in a social environment shape people's beliefs, wants, values, goals, and ambitions. As a result, it examines human behaviors as they are influenced by others, as well as the circumstances in which social behavior and emotions occur. According to Baron, Byrne, and Suls (1989), social psychology is "the scientific area that tries to explain the nature and causes of individual behavior in social contexts."


Social Control

Social control theory defined inner techniques of social control. Individuals would deliberately restrict aberrant conduct if moral norms are internalized and individuals are integrated into broader communities, according to the theory, which says that associations, duties, ideals, and beliefs encourage compliance. Internal methods of influence, such as one's own conscience, ego, and right and wrong sensitivities, are potent in reducing the chance of straying from society standards, according to this perspective. External measures of regulation, on the other hand, compel individuals to follow because an authority figure (such as the state) threatens consequences if they do not.

The philosophy of social regulation aims to explain how to reduce deviation to the bare minimum. Finally, the Hobbesian theory of social regulation holds that all decisions are influenced by social interactions and agreements between parties. Supporters of the social control hypothesis, like Hobbes, believe that morality is established within a social order by imposing costs and consequences on behaviors labelled as wicked, false, immoral, or deviant.



Demography, social research and population sciences can be conceived as consisting of two facets. The former is concerned only with the study of population size and distribution and variance and transition components; the latter is concerned only with population interrelationships and other vector structures of which one collection is sociological. Population analysis offers the sociologist with the ability to deal with quantified variables that offer some context for dealing with other sets of variables. Demography, while a multi-science discipline, may contribute to sociology's core interests and, in return, learn from researching the interrelationships between demographic and sociological variables.

Deviant Behavior

Deviant behavior is any conduct which is contradictory to society's prevailing norms. There are numerous hypotheses that explain how and why individuals participate in deviant behavior, including biological, psychological, and societal causes.

There are two sorts of activities that constitute deviance. The first, a criminal offence, is formal deviation, which is the violation of formally approved legislation. Formal deviance manifests itself in robbery, robbery, rape, homicide, and abuse. Informal deviance is the second type of deviant conduct that involves breaches of implicit social standards. Casual deviance is defined as picking one's nose, belching excessively, or standing needlessly near to another human.


Cultural Sociology

The systemic study of identity, which is typically regarded as the set of symbolic codes that a member of a group employs as exhibited in society, is the focus of cultural sociology and related cultural sociology. Culture, according to Georg Simmel, is "the development of persons via the agency of external forms that have been objectified over time." Culture is examined in the sociological discipline as the methods of thinking and describing, behaving, and the tangible objects that together make up a community's way of life.

The approach of contemporary sociologists to society is frequently split into "sociology of culture" and "cultural sociology" The concepts are identical, but not synonymous. The sociology of culture is an older term, and certain subjects and objects are considered more or less "cultural" than others. Jeffrey C. Alexander, by contrast, invented the term cultural sociology, an approach that at some degree sees all, or most, social events as essentially cultural.


Sociology of Literature

A subfield of the sociology of culture is the sociology of literature. It explores literature's social development and its social consequences. It focuses its attention upon the relation between a literary work and the social structure in which it is created. It reveals that the existence of a literary creation has the determined social situations.


Military Sociology

It closely coincides with C. The appeal by Wright Mills to connect the human world to larger social systems. The goal of military sociology is to systematically study the army as a social entity rather than as a military institution. This highly specialized sub-discipline explores military personnel problems as a discrete category of coerced collective activity focused on common goals linked to vocational and fighting security, with priorities and ideals that are more established and limited than in civil society. Civil-military ties and relationships with other organizations or federal bodies are often associated with military sociology.

It also looks at topics such as military training, military representation by race and ethnicity, fighting, military families, military social organization, war and peace, and the health of the military.


Sociology of Language

The analysis of the connections between language and culture is the sociology of language. The field of sociolinguistics, which focuses on the influence of culture on language, is closely related to it. It reflects on the full spectrum of subjects related to language behavior's social organization, including not only the use of language per se, but also language attitudes and open practices towards language and language users.

The field starts with the premise that language is a social good and pursues research into language in interaction between social classes, especially phenomena such as tensions between languages and multilingualism.

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 Social Interaction - Nature and Basis of Social Interaction

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