Social Processes - Types of Social Process

The study of diverse forms of interaction between individuals or groups, such as collaboration and conflict, social diversity and integration, growth and decay, are all examples of social processes. Individuals and groups use social processes to communicate, adapt, and readjust, as well as create connections and behavioral patterns that are then re-adjusted as a consequence of social interactions.

The term "social process" refers to a variety of broad and recurring kinds of social interaction. The core of social existence is interaction or communal activity. Individual and group interaction happens as part of a social process. The term "social structures" refers to recurring patterns of social contact.

Social processes apply to modes of repeatedly occurring social contact. We mean certain ways in which individuals and groups communicate and create...

The term "social processes" refers to types of social interactions that occur on a regular basis. We're talking about specific ways that people and communities communicate and form social bonds through social processes. Friendship, competition, rivalry, living, and so on are all examples of social interaction. "The social process," according to Maclver, "is the way in which the connections of members of a group develop a unique character once they are brought together".

As Ginsberg says, "Social processes mean the different ways in which individuals or groups interact, including cooperation and conflict, social differentiation and integration, growth, arrest and decay."

"The term social process refers to the repetitive form of behaviour that is commonly found in social life," according to Horton and Hunt.


Types of Social Processes

Hundreds of social processes take place every day. Nonetheless, we have observed that some simple social mechanisms occur often throughout society. Basic mechanisms include socialization, cooperation, competition, competitiveness, accommodation, acculturation, and assimilation, among others. Loomis classified social processes into two types:


1. The elementary process

This systematic or master process. He defines elementary processes that express the distinct elements of the social structure, and extensive processes are those that articulate or include most or more of the elements. Beliefs (knowledge), emotion, end or goal, norm, control, sanction, and facility are these components.


The Elemental Processes are:

  • Application of sanctions
  • Cognitive mapping and validation
  • Decision-making and initiation of action
  • Evaluation
  • Evaluation of actors and Allocation of status-roles
  • Goal attaining and concomitant ‘latent’ activity
  • Status-role performance
  • Strain the board and correspondence of opinion
  • Utilization of facilities.

2. The Comprehensive or Master Processes are:

  • Boundary maintenance
  • Communication
  • Institutionalization
  • Social control
  • Socialization
  • System linkage

The social process may be both beneficial and harmful. As a result, the social process has been split into two main categories, which have been dubbed 'conjunctive and disjunctive,' associative and dissociative,' respectively.


Social processes are also divided into two categories:

1. Associative Process

Social processes that are associative or conjunctive are optimistic. For the unity and profit of community, these social structures function. Cooperation, accommodation, assimilation and acculturation, etc., are part of this grouping of social processes. Below, three main social structures are discussed, such as cooperation, accommodation and assimilation.

I) Cooperation:

Cooperation is an essential aspect of social life. It's a type of social process in which two or more people or groups work together to accomplish a common objective. Cooperation is a type of social interaction in which everyone benefits from achieving their objectives. From the preservation of intimate friendships to the effective execution of multinational programs, teamwork permeates all facets of social organization. The fight for survival causes people not only to join parties, but to collaborate with each other as well.

II) Accommodation:

It is a process through which people or individuals adapt to changes in their environment in order to overcome the problems they face. In today's world, new events and conditions arise frequently. Individuals have learned how to react to the current situation. As a result, accommodation necessitates acclimating to the new surroundings.

Human social association is basically the result of a convenience of contending powers, as indicated by Park and Burgess. There are likely to be disputes in general. Since conflict cannot last forever, a compromise is reached by the opposing parties or groups and understanding and conflict comes to an end.

III) Assimilation:

Assimilation is a central social phenomenon; it is the process by which people belonging to multiple communities are unified into one. Effective accommodation sets the tone, namely assimilation, for an added result in human experiences. This suggests that two or more bodies are fully combined and united into a new universal entity, a process similar to digestion, in which we conclude that food is assimilated.

As social interactions become more assimilated, ethnic differences between people's various classes fade away. As a result, people begin to experience, see, and behave similarly as they learn new social values and beliefs and, as a result, carry on a new cultural identity.


2. Dissociative Processes

Dissociative phenomena are considered social processes that contribute to negative consequences. The disintegration of culture stems from these societal systems. These disjunctive social mechanisms are also established. Examples of dissociative social dynamics are rivalry and conflict, etc.

I) Competition:

Currently, rivalry is the most basic aspect of social conflict. This occurs when there is an insufficient supply of anything that people desire, in the sense that not everyone can obtain as much as they want. Competition occurs as a result of demand driving output. For sunlight, air and gifts of nature, individuals do not compete unless they are plentiful in availability.

But for strength, name, prestige, glory, rank, wealth, luxuries and other items that are not readily accessible, people compete. Since scarcity is an inherent state of social existence in some way, there is rivalry of some form or another in all societies.

II) Conflict:

One of the dissociative or disintegrative social processes is conflict. It is an ubiquitous and necessary social process in human connections. Conflict occurs only when the rivals' focus is drawn to themselves from the object of competition.

That is the collaboration's anti-thesis. It is a way of seeking incentives by removing or undermining rivals. It is a calculated effort to oppose the will of someone or others, resist or coerce it. Conflict, in its occasional, intimate and aggressive ways, is a rivalry. Conflict is target focused. But unlike teamwork and rivalry, by making those who pursue them unsuccessful, it aims to capture its target.

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Social Structure


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